Vidyamadhaveeyam – 4th Chapter
Characteristics of a Daivajna and the method of approaching him for Muhurta, Prashna, Jataka, Shakuna etc.
These are important codes of conduct for both the astrologers and their clients. I am sharing this from my on-going Vidyamadhaveeyam English translation hoping that both would follow the Sastra Maryada and derive benefits from this divine science.
देवार्चनाभिनिरतो जपसिद्धमन्त्रः - सप्ताङ्गयुक्तगुणदोषबलाबलज्ञः |
मौहूर्तिको वदति यत्तु फलं मुहूर्ते - सत्यं तदुक्तमृषिभाषितवन्न मिथ्या ||३१||
One who is engaged in the worship of the deities, one who has attained Siddhi of Mantras after performing their Japa, and the one who is adept in knowing the strength and weakness of benefic and malefic effects of the Saptangas - whatever results such Mauhurtika (astrologer dealing with the Muhurta branch of Jyotisha) says regarding a Muhurta will be realized without fail as if those were the words uttered by the great Rishis.
देवाः – शिवविष्णुसूर्यादयः तेषामर्चा पूजा | सा द्विविधा – बाह्या अभ्यन्तरा च | तत्राभ्यन्तरा तावदात्मयागः | स च कृतस्नानात्ममन्त्रशुद्धिभिर्नृभिर्विधेयः | बाह्या तु सिंहासनस्थ पूजा | सा च कृतस्नानमन्त्रद्रव्यलिङ्गशुद्धिभिः कार्या इति | तत्र अभितो दिवा रात्रौ च नितरां रतः त्रिसन्ध्यं देवार्चनानिष्ठ इत्यर्थः | जपेन तत्तत्कल्पोक्त नियमवता अक्षरलक्षादिसंख्य जपतर्पणाहुतिपूर्वकेण सिद्धः अभिमुखीभूतो मन्त्रो यस्येति | स्वकल्पोक्त नियम जपतर्पणाहुतिभिः सिद्धमन्त्र इति यावत् | तादृशस्यैव विविधप्रयोगास्सिध्यन्ति |
Deities are Shiva, Vishnu, Surya and other forms of divinity. Their worship is of two kinds – internal and external. The internal worship done through the mind is named as Atmayaga. Such internal worship is to be done by persons who are purified by Snana (bathing) and Mantras. External worship is carried out in Simhasana (pedestal where idols of the deities are kept). This is also to be carried out by a person who has purified himself (by bathing), the Mantras, material used in the worship and the idols of the deities. The astrologer should be engaged in such kinds of worship day and night. In other words, he should be worshipping the divinities in the three Sandhyas (junction periods between night and day, forenoon and afternoon, and day and night). He should have attained Siddhi of the Mantra by following the prescriptions of Japa by repeating the Mantra for a number of times like Aksharalaksha (repeating a Mantra for so many lakhs as the number of letters in the Mantra), and finishing the Purascharana (practice for gaining Siddhi of a Mantra) with the prescribed rituals of Tarpana, Ahuti and so on. Then only the Mantra can be used to attain various desires.
सप्ताङ्गस्य नक्षत्रादेः तत्संभूतगुणदोषाणां च बलाबलज्ञः | तादृशो दैवज्ञो मुहूर्ते यत्फलं वदति शुभाशुभं वा तेनोक्तं तत् सत्यं भवति यथा महर्षिभाषितं तद्वत् | इतीदं दैवज्ञ लक्षणं |
Saptangas include Nakshatra and other factors of Muhurta. The astrologer should be well adept in determining the good and evil effects of these factors and their strength and weakness. When such an astrologer says favourable or unfavourable results regarding the Muhurta, such words will come to pass as if they are uttered by the great Rishis. These are the characteristics an astrologer should possess.
तथा च गुरुः |
गुणानां दोषाणां प्रबलविबलत्वादिविदुषा - बलानां वा तेषां समबलवतामेकसमये |
परिच्छेता कालो लघुतरदिनैर्दोषहरणैः - सुयोगैरादेश्यो गणकविदुषा कर्मणि शुभः || इति ||
In this connection, the words of Guru are quoted: for the purpose of carrying out an auspicious work, the Muhurta which is fortified with Yogas that remove all blemishes and available within a few days should be determined by the astrologer who is adept in determining the strength, weakness or equality of the positive elements and blemishes of the Muhurta.
यस्मादेव दैवज्ञवाक्यमेव महान् गुणः तस्मात् तत्सत्कारासत्काराभ्यां मुहूर्तसाद्गुण्यवैगुण्येस्त इत्याह |
As it is said that the words of the Daivajna (astrologer) are the greatest Guna (positive factor) for a Muhurta, the author is now explaining that the good or evil effects of the Muhurta will depend on the regard or the disregard shown to the Daivajna.
उपास्य राजानमिवाधिकारो - भक्त्या प्रसाद्यैव गुरुं सुमन्त्रः |
अभ्यर्च्य दैवज्ञमतो ह्युपात्तः - शुभो मुहूर्तो न शुभोSन्यथा स्यात् ||३२||
As an administrative power is obtained after duly pleasing a king, and as an auspicious Mantra is received from a Guru after pleasing him with devotion, the Muhurta should also be obtained from an astrologer in the same way. Such Muhurta will only yield beneficial results and success in the work undertaken. Contrary to this will manifest inauspicious results and failure of the work.
राजानं स्वामिनं उपास्य तस्मादुपात्तः अधिकारः कर्मणि विनियोगो यथा शुभः महदैश्वर्यं विधत्ते | अन्यथा स्वामिनमनुपास्य लब्धोऽपि न शुभः महाद्व्यसनं करोति |
The administrative power which is obtained by the due process after pleasing the rulers will aid in carrying out great jobs and result in great success and prosperity. If such power is exercised without gaining the confidence of the ruler, that will cause bad effects ending up in great misery.
यथा गुरुं भक्त्या प्रसाद्य तस्माल्लब्धो गाणपत्यादिः सुमन्त्रः स्वनामानुगुणो मन्त्रः शुभो भवति | गुरुप्रसादादृते लब्धः स्वनुष्ठितोऽपि न शुभकृत् | उक्तं च भद्रनागैः |
गुर्वनुग्रहमृते महीतले मन्त्र एष न हि सिद्धिदायकः | इति |
The auspicious Mantras of deities like Ganapati and so on, which are suitable and positive as per one’s name, obtained after pleasing the Guru (preceptor) with devotion will cause auspicious results. When the Guru is not pleased, the Mantra will not yield benefic results even when practised with great care following the scriptures. In this regard, Bhadranaga says: Without the blessings of one’s Guru, this Mantra will not result in success in this world.
तथा च दैवज्ञाभिगमनसत्कारसंप्रश्नपूर्वकं यथामति कनकफलकुसुमादिभिः अभ्यर्च तस्मादुपात्तो मुहूर्तः शुभः तत्कर्माभ्युदयकृत् स्यात् | अन्यथा दैवज्ञसत्कारमन्तरेण घटीयन्त्रादिभिः सम्यक् कालं प्रसाध्य गृहीतोऽपि न शुभः स्यात् |
Hence, the Muhurta is to be obtained by approaching an astrologer with devotion and putting the query to him with humbleness and respect. The astrologer is to be felicitated with gold (money), fruits, and flowers etc. Such Muhurta will result in great success of the work undertaken. Without the due respect to an astrologer, even the Muhurta decided by examining the time in great detail by using machines like Ghati Yantra etc. will not yield success.
तथा च गुरुः |
धनान्यायुः श्रियं पृथ्वीमिच्छता ब्राह्मणः स्वयं | दैवज्ञो दैववित् पूज्यः सर्वकार्येषु वृत्रहन् ||
बलबद्गुणसंपन्नः निर्दोषोsप्यशुभावहः | दैवज्ञ पूजयाहीनः कालोऽयं दोषसत्तमः ||
अखिलबलकुलाकुलैस्समेतैः – अपि सहितः समयो गुणैः प्रवृद्धैः |
अविरहितगुणेतरोsतिदोषी – विबुधमुहूर्त सुपूजया वियुक्तः || इति ||
Guru’s words in this matter are quoted: O Vrutrahan! (Indra who slayed the Vrutrasura), if one desires plenty in food grains, longevity, wealth and lands, he should respectfully approach in person and worship a Brahmin, who is an astrologer, to undertake all kinds of jobs. Even when the Muhurta time is endowed with great positive factors in strength and bereft of blemishes, it is to be considered as the most malefic Muhurta if it is devoid of due respect and worship of an astrologer.
इह दैवज्ञमभ्यर्च्य मुहूर्तो ग्राह्य इति वदता मुहूर्तसंप्रश्नादिप्रदानान्तो विधिः सूचितः | स चान्यत्र विहितः | यथा वराहमिहिरः |
तस्मान्नृपः कुसुमरत्नफलाग्रहस्तः – प्रातः प्रणम्य रवये हरिदिङ्मुखस्थः |
होराङ्गतन्त्र कुशलान् हितकारिणश्च – संपूज्य दैवगणकान् सकृदेव पृच्छेत् ||
Here, while saying that Muhurta is to be obtained by respectfully worshipping an astrologer, a procedure starting from respectfully questioning the astrologer and ending in his felicitation is indicated. This procedure is discussed at some other place by other scholars. In this regard, Varahamihira says: Thus, a King, saluting the Sun in the morning, holding flowers, jewels, and fruits in his hands, should approaching the Daivajnas who are adept in the science of Jyotisha and who are his well-wishers. He should worship them and ask his question only once facing the east.
दैवज्ञं सम्यगभ्यर्च्य पृच्छेत् कनकभूषणैः | वस्त्रभूगोयुतैः भृत्यैः यथाशक्तिः न वञ्चयेत् ||
एकान्ते पूर्णहस्तस्तु सुमुहूर्ते शुभे दिने | स्वस्थं सुखासनासीनं पृच्छेद्दैवविदं नृपः ||
Bharadwaja Rishi says: Without succumbing to greed, the King should properly worship the astrologer with golden ornaments, clothes, lands, cattle and servants as per his own capacity. On an auspicious day and in a favourable Muhurta, filling his hands with gifts, the King should approach and submit his queries to an astrologer who is of composed mind and who is comfortably seated in an isolated place.
पूर्वाह्णे प्राङ्मुखोराजा शुचिः संयतमानसः | कृतदेवनमस्कारो हिरण्यफलसंयुतः ||
दत्वा दैवविदे किञ्चित् ततः प्रश्नं विचारयेत् || इति ||
In Brahmayamala: During the forenoon, after purifying himself and worshipping the deities, with composed mind, taking gold (money) and fruits with him, the King should felicitate the astrologer and submit his query facing east.
अपराह्णे रात्रौ च न पृच्छेत् | यस्मात् पराशरः |
वेलास्सर्वाः प्रशस्यन्ते पूर्वाह्णे परिपृच्छतां | सन्ध्ययोरपराहणे च क्षपायां च विगर्हितं || इति |
The query should not be asked during afternoon and night. Because, Parashara says: Any time will be auspicious to put the queries to an astrologer during the forenoon. But, the Sandhyas (junctional periods), Aparahna (afternoon), and the night are to be avoided.
दैवज्ञानभियोगे दोषमाह भरद्वाजः |
कुलजं बुद्धिसंपन्नं धर्मज्ञं सत्यवादिनं | शुचिं दैवपरं पृच्छेत् लोभद्वेषविवर्जितं ||
तथाविधं बुधश्रेष्ठं पृच्छेत् संपूज्य शक्तितः | दैवज्ञाश्च यथा ब्रूयुस्तथा कुर्वन्न दोषभाक् || इति ||
Bharadhwaja says: An astrologer who is born in a good lineage, who is intelligent, who knows the scriptures, who is truthful, who is pure, who is devoted to the deities, who is devoid of greed and jealousy should be approached to submit one’s query. Such learned astrologer should be duly respected and worshipped before asking one’s question. By undertaking the job following the injunctions of such astrologers, the doer will not get any blemish.
यस्मादिह संपूज्य शक्तितः प्रुच्छेदित्युक्तं तस्मात् सति विभवे श्रेयसीं सपर्यां कुर्यात् | अन्यथा मध्यमां | यथा दैववित्तुष्यति तां वा | अदत्त्वा अवज्ञाय वा न पृच्छेत् |
Since it is said that the astrologer should be felicitated as per one’s capacity before asking the query, if one is wealthy, the astrologer should be grandly felicitated. If one is not wealthy, moderate gifts should be given. Otherwise, those things should be given by which the astrologer gets satisfied. Without giving anything or for the purpose of insulting, the astrologer should not be approached.
सत्कारंतु निमित्तज्ञे जघन्यं नैव योजयेत् | उत्तमं मध्यमं वाsपि योजयेत् तत्फलं भवेत् ||
रमणीयमय द्रव्यं दातव्यं येन तुष्यति | केवलं न भवेत् प्रष्टा यथा प्रुच्छेत्तथा फलं ||
परिभूयतु यः पृच्छेद्दैवज्ञमवमत्य वा | न सिध्यतीति वक्तव्यं दुःखं वाथ पराभवं ||
केवलं पृच्छमानस्य न वदेद्दैवचिन्तकः | उभयोरपि दोषस्स्यात् ज्ञानिनः पृच्छकस्य च || इति ||
Because, it is said: inferior kind of gifts should never be given to the knower of Nimittas (astrologer). Superior or medium category of felicitation should be done to the astrologer as per one’s capacity. Then only the seeker will get the fulfilment of his desires. Otherwise, any kind of beautiful things should be submitted by which the astrologer gets satisfied. Because, the questioner’s wishes do not get fulfil by themselves by simply asking the questions. If one asks questions with indifferent attitude or by insulting an astrologer, those wishes will not be fulfilled. Instead the questioner will himself suffer misery and defeat. An astrologer should not give predictions to a questioner who only asks questions without the due respect and felicitation. By doing so, both the astrologer and the questioner would be at fault.
अन्यायात् पृच्छतो यस्य भवेद्विद्या पराङ्मुखी | प्रुच्छ्यमानं कृतं नश्येत् निमित्तस्य च गौरवात् ||
And again, if an astrologer pronounces results to a person who has not approached him in the manner prescribed by the scriptures, the divine knowledge will disappear from the astrologer to protect the respect of the Nimitta Sastra, and both the astrologer and the questioner will suffer disaster.
मायाकुटिलभावेन हास्यपाषण्डितस्करे | अभक्ते रिक्तपाणौ च न ज्ञानं सत्यतां व्रजेत् || इति ||
In this regard, Sahadeva also says: the knowledge bestowed to a Pashandi (atheist or who does not believe in the Vedas), thief, who does not have devotion towards the deities, Sastras and the astrologer, who has approached the astrologer with empty hands, with an attitude of deceit, crookedness, and mockery will not be realized.
यो दैवज्ञमवज्ञाय कर्म कुर्यात् स नश्यति | तस्मात् संपूज्य दैवज्ञं शृणुयाच्च क्रियाश्चरेत् || इति ||
Guru also says: one who undertakes a work by insulting an astrologer will surely perish. Hence, after duly worshipping an astrologer, his words should be listened to carefully and the work is to be undertaken as per those injunctions.